1; Modify Your Search. Ltda., Managua, Nicaragua, a firm that holds permits to collect and export octopus. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0134152 Copy DOI. Conceived and designed the experiments: RLC RR AR CH. Science Friday: The Strangely Social Life of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus; Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus; Penn’s Sunday School: Octopodes and the Cephs, and Laws Make Weasels; How male octopuses avoid being eaten by hungry females; Social Octopus Species Shatters Beliefs About Ocean Dwellers ; Collection, Transport and Husbandry of the Coconut Octopus Yes California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, United States of America, E. Edsinger, G. DölenA conserved role for serotonergic neurotransmission in mediating social behavior in octopus. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. Senescent males and females typically sat with mantle and head in the den, and the oral surface, beak and suckers exposed (Fig 3C). No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134152, http://www.acuc.berkeley.edu/policies/acu_program.pdf. Octopuses frequently moved 1–2 body lengths before ejecting prey remains. Notes on the Behavior of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus, An Undescribed Species of the Genus Octopus. These containers were placed within larger aquaria (227–757 L) with a closed seawater filtration system. However, LPSO appear better designated as ‘continuous spawning’ with a single prolonged egg-laying period, rather than ‘iteroparous’ with multiple discretely separate egg-laying periods [30]. The location of each drill site on the snail shell was consistent for each individual LPSO but varied between individuals. The larger Pacific striped octopus was observed near Nicaragua in the late 1970s by Panamanian biologist Aradio Rodaniche. Oct 14, 2019 - Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for … A dark eye bar (Fig 2I) was visible in all body color patterns, and sometimes extended anteriorly and/or posteriorly beyond the eye. While this tactic would increase long-term fecundity of LPSO as well, this species is of average size rather than small, reaching a mantle length of at least 70 mm while laying eggs. We recorded interactions between octopuses from 52.8 hr of video during a long-term study of octopus behavior in Jervis Bay, Australia (see the Supplemental Experimental Procedures).From n = 186 interactions, we recorded n = 345 body patterns and darkness of interacting individuals, along with n = 512 actions such as reaches within interactions. Because we did not want to sacrifice individuals, we did not perform gut content analysis, which would have been required to confirm feeding by both individuals. They all died a natural senescent death typical of octopus after reproducing. One female did not move for three to four weeks before dying. It was not possible to record numbers of eggs laid each day as different groups of eggs were laid next to and among each other. They were collected for commercial sale in the aquarium trade by Livan, Jansen & Cia. adshelp[at]cfa.harvard.edu The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX16AC86A View Record in Scopus Google Scholar. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were Sand that entered the den was removed from the den with forceful jetting of water through the funnel. The larger Pacific striped octopus stalks a shrimp. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. During mating, females often enveloped the male either partially (Fig 4B) or fully into the web, with the male’s arms bent backward over his mantle. Videos were taken with a Sony HDR-CX165 (RR), a Sony Handycam HDR-XR260-V (RLC) and an iPhone 4 (RR). During mating, females exhibit all pale body patterns, while males exhibit a darker or higher-contrast display. This posture was commonly expressed by animals away from their dens, primarily in the early morning or when tank water was cloudy due to aquarium maintenance. Two females were introduced to males while brooding. New York: Penguin Group, 2013. [2] (PDF) Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus | Roy Caldwell - Academia.edu Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Previously, pair bonding has been noted to occur in this species [5]. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.Good channel: https://www.youtube.com/DliumSubscribe, like and comment.Good website: https://www.dlium.comBookmark, subscribe and comment. Dark-light contrast of these components was expressed in varying degrees from high contrast (Fig 2A–2E) to barely visible during expression of all dark brown (Fig 2G) and all pale (Fig 2H). Although possibly common in deep-sea cirrate octopodids (e.g. We thank Elizabeth Palomeque for her patronage and support of this project, as well as Jean Auplay, Marisa Avila and Kalin Ross for their help in the care of the animals during this study. As with mating in the ‘distance’ position in other octopuses [41], female LPSO can also feed while mating beak-to-beak. (B) Solitary Day octopus (Octopus cyanea) hiding on top of a rock. The beak-to-beak mating posture is similar to the head-to-head mating posture typical in decapod cephalopods (squids and cuttlefishes; [32,33]), especially those that mate directly beak-to-beak (e.g. In the 1970’s hatching began between days 37–38 (housed at 27–28°C). Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. 8. 1. In 2012–2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. Larger Pacific striped octopuses are known for their beautiful stripes and polka dots, and they also appear to be more social than any other known species of octopus. This female was observed to build a small rounded mound of sand around the den entrance, sometimes burying the entrance to the den (15 to 31 cm in diameter, up to 5 cm deep in the center). Posted August 30, 2018 by UCMP Finally Thaumoctopus mimicus and Wunderpus photogenicus exhibit body patterns that incorporate high-contrast dark brown and pale spots and bars visible at rest [48]. Following release of males from mating, sucker marks from the grip of the female were often visible on his mantle. One female spawned continuously for six months and brooded for a total of eight months. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. This study did not require approval of protocols by The University of California, Berkeley Animal Care and Use Committee (our IACUC), which only requires approved protocols for vertebrate animals (Animal Care and Use Program Policy http://www.acuc.berkeley.edu/policies/acu_program.pdf). Males typically died one to two weeks after they abruptly ceased feeding (though three weeks in one case). False frontal white eye spots: two adjacent white spots centered below eyes; C.-D. Skin texture of LPSO is not unique. 7. Based on observations of these individuals maintained in the laboratory from 2012–2014, we provide photographic and video evidence and behavioral descriptions that confirm many observations reported in previous accounts about this species [4,5], including beak-to-beak mating, co-occupancy of a den by a mating male and female pair, extended spawning, and unique prey-capture methods. When in open sand, senescent females sat slightly buried, with the arms intertwined over the head and mantle creating a space presumably used for ventilation. This generalization does not apply to LPSO, whose females lay eggs for up to six months and brood for up to eight months. The most overt example of female aggression during mating took place when a male attempted to mate with a brooding female. 2015. No, Is the Subject Area "Bird eggs" applicable to this article? Using information from the discussion section on either beak to beak mating or egg laying, describe a hypothetical follow-up experiment that … While their behavior and neurobiology have been extensively studied, most research is based on observations of just a handful of the more than 300 species of octopus worldwide. This observation suggests group site fidelity, which might extend beyond the life span of a single individual. Dosidicus gigas [34]). This funding group had no influence on the authors' study design, interpretation, or communication. "Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus." We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Likewise, we do not know whether LPSO living in groups visually recognize conspecifics, which is associated with reduced physical aggression and increased localized avoidance with familiar individuals in Octopus vulgaris [60]. No, Is the Subject Area "Animal sexual behavior" applicable to this article? We have no evidence for speculating on similarities between T. mimicus, W. photogenicus, Amphioctopus and LPSO other than these octopuses all occupy a sandy bottom habitat [21,51]. Based on earlier collections, the deepest published mention of LPSO habitat is 300 m [4], and groups of up to 40 individuals were observed living in close proximity, with dens within one meter of one another [4]. At delivery they ranged in size from approximately 15–25 mm mantle length (ML). File:Behavior-and-Body-Patterns-of-the-Larger-Pacific-Striped-Octopus-pone.0134152.s002.ogv. Credit: Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus Unlike with distance and mounting postures observed in other types of octopus, beak-to-beak mating in LPSO frequently involves grappling, and allows rapid full envelopment of the male into the female’s oral web, behaviors that are typically associated with aggressive contests in octopuses [14,27]. Eyespots were yellow-orange in color. The larger Pacific striped octopus exhibits a striking high-contrast display of colors and patterns, which can vary from a pale to dark reddish-brown hue to black with white stripes, and spots with both smooth and uneven skin textures. Der Larger Pacific Striped Octopus ist ein Ausnahmefall unter den Kraken: Er ist sozialer, fruchtbarer und ein strategischerer Jäger als seine Verwandten Categories: Cephalopod breeding , Cephalopods , Journal publications , Larger Pacific Striped Octopus A blue sheen was often visible on dark areas (Fig 2I), and a green undertone visible in the pale regions. 2015 Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus. All specimens originated from the same collector from one location in Nicaragua. If so, then it is possible that their individually unique body color patterns might facilitate this form of recognition, and allow for the unique suite of interspecific interactions observed here in LPSO, such as repeated mating, and food and den sharing. Body color patterns were primarily represented by a gradient between all pale, all dark brown, and stripe-bar-spot. Mating individuals also frequently grappled arms, females jetted water at males through the funnel, and females pushed males away. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134152.g003. We therefore did not seek institutional approval. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Affiliation For this week’s homework, read “Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus” by Caldwell et al. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134152.g004. Roy L. Caldwell et al (2015), PLoS ONE http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134152Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Yes The resting posture of brooding LPSO involves the oral surface facing outward while the dorsal mantle faces the eggs. On at least four occasions, this pair shared a den for more than three consecutive days. A female/female paring was attempted but was quickly abandoned when the larger female started to eat the eggs she had already laid. LPSO appears to be endemic to the tropical Eastern Pacific. Females are typically larger and sometimes become aggressive. The large eggs hatch in about 65 days at 23°C. Ltda., Managua, Nicaragua, who first alerted us of the occurrence of LPSO off the Pacific coast of Nicaragua and provided all of the LPSO collected 2012–2014. In the laboratory, individuals occupied dens of a variety of natural (shells of Nautilus, Strombus, and the barnacle Conchylepes) and artificial (terra cotta flower pots, glass bottles, custom blown glass, PVC tubes 3, 3.8 and 5 cm diameter) materials. At rest, individuals often sat with the oral surface exposed and the arms pulled back behind the mantle (Fig 3C). The Larger Pacific Striped Octopus, together with its close relative, Octopus chierchiae, or more commonly known as the Lesser Pacific Striped Octopus, are considered “harlequin” octopuses due to their appearance. Maximum size attained in captivity in 2012–2014 was 45 mm ML for males and 70 mm ML for females. In these cases the female initially caught the prey item and the male approached, entering into the beak-to-beak position, with the prey between the two animals. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Because animals were active in the day, and did not appear to be active during the night (as verified by haphazardly timed checks), ambient light was sufficient for observations. A.-B. Water temperature was 20–23°C. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Females were typically larger than the males offered. PLoS One. Body color patterns and postures of adults maintained in captivity, and chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. Additional individuals have been collected in Guatemala (Smithsonian Institution Invertebrate Zoology USNM 817793, a single individual incorrectly identified as Octopus spilotus) and Magdelena Bay, Baja Sur, Mexico (Dr. Gustavo Hinojosa Arango, personal communication). In each of these cases the female was initially kept in her den in a plastic container with the top removed, and the male was allowed access to the entire aquarium. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Using information from the discussion section on either beak to beak mating or egg laying, describe a hypothetical follow-up experiment that … In one of the two cases of inking observed of all animals in captivity, a male inked when enveloped by the mating female. The aggregation found in Nicaragua in 2012 appears to have persisted for longer than two years. Rather than depositing spermatophores for external sperm storage as in decapods, male octopuses place spermatophores internally in the oviducts of the female, which is located inside the mantle and not within reach of male flushing via jetting [33,40]. Answer the following questions and submit them to Blackboard before the start of the next class. No, Is the Subject Area "Aggression" applicable to this article? The granular skin, including on the dorso-lateral surfaces of the arms, is similar to that found in Amphioctopus spp. When brooding females were found away from their eggs, they usually immediately returned to their eggs and maintained arm contact with them until we left. While many species of octopus are known for their showy displays of color, the larger Pacific striped octopus is particularly notable for its striking high-contrast display of colors and patterns, which can vary from a pale to dark reddish-brown hue to black with white stripes and spots with both smooth and uneven skin textures. "Octopus! LPSO was reported to form colonies of 30–40 individuals living at high density, including co-occupancy of dens by pairs presumed to be mates [4,5]. The largest specimen of this species to be scientifically documented was an animal with a live mass of 71 kg (156.5 lb). The beak-to-beak posture might facilitate mating with females that are brooding, but still likely to lay more eggs. The only individual to use them for denning was a senescing female that hid behind pebbles in the corner of a tank for the four weeks prior to her death. Figure 5. Courage, Katherine Harmon. The second brooding female accepted matings on three occasions, but rejected attempts by two different males. Terms used to describe skin morphology follow those defined and illustrated previously [8,9,14–21]. Dec 17, 2018 - Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for … Wrote the paper: RLC RR AR CH. Beak-to-beak mating might limit access to a mating female to one male at a time because she has one buccal area, a situation that might confer competitive mating advantages in this group-living species. This paper can be found in “Homework Papers” in Course Documents on Blackboard. Bivalves (Venerupis philippinarum) were pulled apart or crushed when small, while a larger bivalve was drilled, as with Octopus dierythraeus [26]. While many studies of the octopus behaviors are unique ... C.L. Therefore any references to the frequency of observations must be interpreted with caution. Unlike the other 300 or so species of octopus, the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus actually seems to have at least a shade of social life. Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. For this week’s homework, read “Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus” by Caldwell et al. During the first case of mating observed, animals were separated. Trawls capturing individuals in the 1970’s operated at depths ranging from 7–100 m, however exact depths of capture during those collections are not known. Other resolutions: 320 × 180 pixels | 640 × 360 pixels | 854 × 480 pixels. Answer the following questions and submit them to Blackboard before the start of the next class. Note blue sheen of funnel and green undertone of pale bars on the eye. Crabs were not pursued using this single arm extension behavior. When this male and female shared a den, each one sat at a different opening, and the pair mated daily. Affiliations Papillae shape was conical rather than flap-like or branched. Larger Pacific striped octopus LPSO exhibits three main body color patterns that include completely pale, completely dark brown, and a dark brown and white pattern that is referred to as "stripe-bar-spot". During mating, females exhibit all pale body patterns, while males exhibit a darker or higher-contrast display. HuffardBehavior and body patterns of the larger pacific striped octopus. In the 1970’s, three females were captured by trawl with what might have been their eggs on the inside of gastropod shells (1—Ficus ventricosa, 2—Malea ringens). Along with W. photogenicus, Hapalochlaena lunulata [53] and O. chierchiae, LPSO bears individually unique and consistently distinguishable body color patterns. Octopus Behavior. Science Friday: The Strangely Social Life of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus; Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus; Penn’s Sunday School: Octopodes and the Cephs, and Laws Make Weasels; How male octopuses avoid being eaten by hungry females; Social Octopus Species Shatters Beliefs About Ocean Dwellers LPSO expressed a diversity of body postures in the laboratory (Fig 3). All observations from the 1970’s are explicitly noted where included or cited. At the onset of senescence, females gradually reduced food intake and hunting behavior, eating smaller amounts of prey, less-frequently, and gradually reduced general activity. Females frequently tended eggs by running arm tips through them to presumably keep them from fouling. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Affiliation Cite . Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. To increase transparency, PeerJ operates a system of 'optional signed reviews and history'. The pale bars and stripes of this pattern were delineated by a raised white border (1 mm maximum in elevation) that circumscribed the pale components. However LPSO lacks the flap-like primary papillae in a diamond configuration on the mantle, and dark arm stripes along the dorsolateral edge of arms typically found in Amphioctopus. Large pale spots over a uniform brown background covered the aboral surface of the web and arms (Fig 2A–2E). Females typically died between two and four months after showing the initial signs of senescence. Abdopus aculeatus, Octopus insularis, Octopus vulgaris [22,54,55]). 2015. Note second individual in neighboring aquarium (upper right of video, not in focus). Dr. Arcadio Rodaniche initially mentioned the species in a paper back in 1977 and published a full description of the species in 1991. We used conventional terminology of gross morphology [13]. Three to four weeks into senescence, resting skin patterns of females was poorly maintained, and tended to take on a look that was less defined, and with lower contrast. After several successful matings in controlled environments that resulted in no cannibalism or damage beyond sucker marks on the mantles of males, four male and female pairs were allowed to share a tank. Answer the following questions and submit them to Blackboard before the start of the next class. Citation: Caldwell RL, Ross R, Rodaniche A, Huffard CL (2015) Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus. This non-invasive study was carried out in accordance with the policies of care outlined by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, and the Steinhart Aquarium’s Animal Research Committee and Animal Care Committee under the guidance of the Steinhart Aquarium’s Animal Health Department. Beak-to-beak mating , dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. This mating position might allow for sucker alignment and simultaneous beak-to-beak feeding associated with mating and/or pairing behavior, including during brooding. Unique behaviors like beak-to-beak mating, den co-occupancy by a mating pair, extended spawning, and unique prey-capture were observed in captive larger Pacific striped octopus. Behavioral terminology follows descriptions in the literature for other species, or were defined here if no established term was available. On multiple occasions SCUBA divers have found groups of LPSO living in very close proximity to one another ([4,5], collections in 2012–2014), a situation that might have strong implications for behavioral interactions. The Most Mysterious Creature in the Sea." Octopus briareus Robson is a common octopod in the tropical W. Atlantic weighing up to 1500 g and measuring 1 m. It can be easily reared on a small scale for research purposes in open and closed systems, and these methods may be applicable for mariculture on a larger scale. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus. A) Insertion of male hectocotylized arm into female mantle cavity, male on left, female on right; B) Female (right, pale) slightly enveloping male (left) during mating; C) Sucker alignment during mating; D) sucker alignment and mantle encircled with arm during mating; E) Hectocotylus insertion during ‘distance’ mating in beak-to-beak posture (male left, female right). At the time, limited observations were made in the field, but most descriptions were based on captive individuals held in the laboratory in March 1975 and May 1977. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. At the time, shrimps (Peneus vannemai and P. occidentalis) were taken before stomatopods (Lysiosquilla panamica and Squilla aculeata), which were taken before crabs (Callinectes arquatus and C. toxotes). The aggregated benthic octopuses at the active vent used their arms and webs to forage on bathypelagic amphipods, apparently targeting their attacks based on contact with the swarming amphipods. A male/male pairing was never attempted. Trio was housed together, and granular skin, including during brooding creatures though reports demonstrated. Cases the male foraged and explored away from the 1970 ’ s talk mating... Richard Ross, Arcadio Rodaniche initially mentioned the species was first documented in the pale regions authors ' study,... 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Female/Female paring was attempted but was quickly abandoned when the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors unknown.